Abnormalities in the development of the knee joint are a rare pathology but they can lead to disability already in childhood. Not all defects require urgent surgical intervention; many of them can be treated conservatively. But the pathology still should not be ignored. At Ladisten, operations aimed to correct knee joint abnormalities of various nature are successfully performed.

Types of abnormalities

аномалии развития коленного сустава

The most common knee abnormalities are:

Lack of the patella. The function of the knee-cap is to protect the joint from displacement. If the pathology arose on its own, it does not need to be treated. Unfortunately, often in case when the patella is absent, concomitant abnormalities such as dislocations, underdevelopment of the lower leg or thigh also appear.

Bipartite patella. The knee-cap consists of 2-3 fragments. At the same time, the size of the knee is normal, its functions are kept. Patients have an increased risk of injury and development of arthrosis.

Congenital dislocation of the knee joints. A pathology in which the knee can unbend significantly, but does not bend properly. The abnormality looks like a knee facing in the opposite direction. Requires urgent treatment.

Dislocation of the knee-cap is an abnormality in the development of the patella which has a genetic nature. The patella is displaced, the movement in the joint is limited. With age, valgus deformity develops.

Flexion contracture of the knee joint. A rare pathology that requires surgery. A fold is formed in the popliteal area. Nerves and tendons may also suffer.

Causes of the development of knee joint abnormalities

Why do abnormalities occur in the development of the knee joint is not known exactly. Doctors tend to believe that several external and internal factors influencing the fetus lead to it:

  • ionizing radiation and various other types of pathological radiation;
  • the effect of toxins and chemicals, including some medicines;
  • infections of the mother and intrauterine infections of the baby;
  • disruption of the thyroid gland and the entire endocrine system;
  • pathology of the immune system.

If a negative impact on the fetus took place in the first trimester, that is, when the musculoskeletal system starts to form, then underdevelopment of the knee joint and other structures occurs. In case of impact during a later period, the joint and bone structures may become deformed.


In most cases, an abnormality of the knee joint is diagnosed after visual examination and palpation. Medical history is also taken – in case of many abnormalities present, the patient complains of pain and discomfort in the affected area. X-ray diagnostics, CT or MRI scan are used to confirm the diagnosis.

Some abnormalities go away without any symptoms shown, such as a bipartite patella. They can only be diagnosed by hardware methods.

In addition, the doctor may prescribe taking functional tests and biopsy.

How to treat it

The abnormalities of development of the knee joint are successfully treatable. The most effective effect can be provided by a surgical operation. Treatment has three goals:

  • elimination of deformation as a cosmetic defect;
  • restoration of full function of the knees and legs;
  • improvement of the quality of life and psychological health.

To correct congenital deformities of the knee joint, its underdevelopment and developmental abnormalities, a number of modern minimally invasive techniques are used at Ladisten:

  • reconstructive surgery;
  • arthrotomy;
  • osteotomy;
  • muscle and tendon resection;
  • capsulotomy.

In some cases, special orthopedic fixation devices which help to ensure correct knitting of the limb are used. The clinic uses a unique patented device developed by Dr. Veklich with an improved design.

The rehabilitation period includes exercise therapy and massages. These treatment techniques are also available at Ladisten Clinic.

There is no reason to be worried too much about the presence of abnormalities, but they cannot be ignored. Timely treatment makes it possible for the patient to return to normal life within a few weeks.


  2. E.P. Baburkina. , Simenach BI, State Institution “Institute of Pathology of the Spine and Joints named after M.I. Sitenko NAMS of Ukraine “, Kharkiv Congenital dislocation of the knee, Credit: Simeon A. Boyadjiev Boyd, MD, University of California
  3. Davis Traumatology and Orthopedics. A guide for doctors. Volume 3. Shaposhnikov Yu.G
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