Today we will talk about such a disease as syndactyly.
WHAT IS SYNDACTY?
Syndactyly is a congenital union of two or more fingers on the hands or feet. The key feature of this pathology is that the fingers or toes grow together.
The disease can be present on one or more limbs. In addition, syndactyly of the arm or leg may be accompanied by other limb deformities associated with abnormal joint development.
Syndactyly accounts for about 50% of congenital anomalies of the upper extremities. According to statistics, pathology occurs in 10% of newborns.
In girls, pathology is less common than in boys, since very often the mutating gene is transmitted precisely through the male line.
WHEN DOES THE PATHOLOGY APPEAR?
Pathology manifests itself at 4-8 weeks of gestation, when the embryo starts laying and forming a hand. This malformation occupies more than half of all hand and foot anomalies.
TYPES OF SYNDACTY
Syndactyly on the legs, as well as on the hands, is of two types, depending on the type of fusion:
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF THE DISEASE?
The main cause of syndactyly is a hereditary factor transmitted in an autosomal dominant way. However, if there were no cases of syndactyly in the family, then the cause of the anomaly is the unfavorable course of pregnancy, provoked by negative factors, such as:
Very often, the reasons for the formation of syndactyly remain unclear.
SYMPTOMS OF SYNDACTY
The main symptom of syndactyly is the presence of spliced fingers, which is evident on the first examination of a newborn baby. The shape and type of fusion can be different, depending on whether the fusion is soft or bone, full or incomplete, with deformation of the fused fingers or not. With bilateral syndactyly, symmetrical fusion is usually observed.
With soft tissue adhesion, the functions of the hand are practically not disturbed, which allows children with this type of pathology to perform a fairly wide range of actions.
WHAT ARE THE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS OF THIS PATHOLOGY?
The diagnosis of syndactyly is established immediately after birth on the basis of an external examination of the child. To accurately determine the form of the defect and select the most appropriate treatment tactics, a number of studies are being carried out:
Also, to exclude chromosomal, gene abnormalities, it is recommended to consult a geneticist.
WHAT DOCTOR TREATS THIS DISEASE?
As a rule, syndactyly is treated: at the stage of diagnosis – a neonatologist, at the stage of treatment – a surgeon and a pediatric orthopedist.
TYPES OF SYNDACTY
The typification of syndactyly is carried out: in form and in structure.
In particular, according to the form of the disease, 5 types of syndactyly are distinguished:
By structure, there are 4 such types of syndactyly:
TREATMENT OF SYNDACTY
Syndactyly is treated by surgery. In cases with fusion of toes, the operation is performed only if the pathology interferes with walking. The method that will be used for the operation and the time of its implementation is determined depending on the form of the pathology and its nature. The most suitable age for the operation is considered to be 4-5 years. In cases with the terminal form of syndactyly, the operation is performed at the age of 6 to 12 months, to prevent uneven growth and secondary deformity of the fingers.
There are five methods of performing the operation, the most difficult of which is a multi-stage intervention, in which, in addition to separation, bone, muscle, tendon and skin plastics are performed. The simplest intervention is the separation of the membrane, which does not require plastic surgery.
For 3-4 months after the operation, a removable plaster splint is applied to the hand. Physiotherapy begins two weeks after the operation.
It is important to note that in the vast majority of cases, the simple (cutaneous) form of toe syndactyly does not cause functional problems.
FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH SYNDACTY
Among people suffering from this disease, there are well-known personalities. For example, Stalin’s second and third toes on his left foot were fused from birth. The American actor Ashton Kutcher also suffers from this disease, who is not at all shy of him, and even periodically shows his fused fingers on camera.
If you or your child suffers from this disease, our clinic will be happy to help you solve this problem and live a full life!
Your «Ladisten Clinic».
Submit your review